Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and challenging complication arising from treatment with many commonly used anticancer agents. In particular, oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) occurring during treatment requires dose reduction or cessation of treatment. These mechanisms are complex with changes in ion channels (sodium, potassium, and calcium), transient receptor potential channels, mitochondrial dysfunction, and immune cell interactions in particular. The pharmacological treatment for OIPN is limited.