Neuropathic pain originates from pathologies of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Various diseases or disease-like states such as diabetes, nerve compression or trauma, or chemotherapy can produce neuropathic pain that is reported as chronic, continuous or lacerating and is often associated with abnormal sensations, allodynia and hyperalgesia. The clinical manifestations of neuropathic pain vary with the type of disease suggesting the involvement of different pathological mechanisms. These mechanistic differences are important for understanding the underlying pathophysiology and for defining treatment options. The most widely used neuropathic pain models are based on manipulations that provoke nerve damage induced by earlier nerve ligation or by treatment with various chemical agents.